It is done by measurement of BMD by DEXA is gold standard.
(1) Prevention of Osteoporosis -
Immobilisation is very important cause of bone loss and bed rest quickly leads to destructive bone loss. For this immobility should be avoided whenever possible.
(2) Physical activity -
Exercise such as walking weight bearing aerobics and resistance exercises were reported to have an effect on BMD and muscle strength. They should be encouraged in Osteoporosis.
(3) Prevention of falls -
The prevention of falls is of crucial importance in the very elderly and the strategies targeted to decrease the most common risk disorders, etc.
- Impaired vision
- cardiovascular disease
- History of falls
- Medication (benzodiazepines)
- Cognitive impairment
- Environment (slippery surface, inappropriate shoes, carpets, insufficient light, etc) are recommended.
(4) Calcium and Vitamin D supplementation -
Main nutrient relevant for bone health are calcium, Vit D and protein. Inadequate intake of these nutrients leads to Osteoporosis.
How much calcium do women need each day?
It depends on the age.
9 - 18 yrs. - 1300 mg per day
19 - 50 yrs - 1000 mg per day
51 & older. - 1200 mg per day
Pregnant and nursing women need same amount of calcium.
How much Vit D is needed for women each day?
Upto age 70 yrs - 600 IU
71 & older - 800 IU each day.
Pregnant and breast feeding women of the same age amount of Vit D is 600 IU .Women of all age need to take step to protect their bones.